A female announcer says, WELCOME TO
TVOKIDS POWER HOUR OF LEARNING.
TODAY'S JUNIOR LESSON:
EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

Text reads ”TVOkids Power Hour of Learning.
Teacher Edition. Today's junior lesson:
Experimental and Theoretical Probability.

A woman with long black hair and black-framed glasses sits with her arms crossed on a table in front of her. She wears a floral print long-sleeved shirt and has a photo of the Toronto skyline on a wall behind her. On the table are two cardboard cubes marked with the pips of six-sided dice.

Text reads Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Teacher Vanessa say, HI STUDENTS, HOW ARE YOU?
MY NAME IS TEACHER VANESSA,
AND WELCOME TO ANOTHER EPISODE
OF TVOKIDS POWER HOUR
OF LEARNING.

WE'RE GOING TO SPEND THE NEXT SIXTY
MINUTES DIVING DEEP INTO
THE WORLD OF EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

WE'RE GOING TO HAVE A LOT
OF FUN, PLAY A LOT OF GAMES,
AND LEARN A LOT.

BUT BEFORE WE DO,
I THOUGHT WE COULD DO SOME
MINDFULNESS AND DEEP BREATHING EXERCISES
WITH THE HELP OF...

Vanessa picks up a cardboard die.

She continues, A PROBABILITY DEVICE
SUCH AS A DICE.
SO WHATEVER NUMBER I LAND ON
WHEN I ROLL
IS HOW MANY DEEP BELLY BREATHS
WE'RE GOING TO TAKE
TO CALM OUR MIND, AND SET OUR--
GET US READY FOR SOME MATH LEARNING.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

She says, SIX. I THINK WE ALL NEED
SIX BREATHS,
THE MOST WE COULD GET. OKAY?

SO BREATHE IN THROUGH YOUR NOSE,
THAT'S ONE.

Vanessa breathes deeply.

She says, GOOD JOB. FOUR.
LAST ONE.

AND I FEEL WE ALL NEED THOSE
BREATHS TO CENTRE US
AND GET US GROUNDED

Vanessa holds up a piece of paper that reads “Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

She explains, SO TODAY WE'RE GOING TO TALK
BETWEEN THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,
WHICH LOOKS AT THE NUMBER OF
FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES
OR THE LIKELIHOOD
OF SOMETHING HAPPENING,
AN EVENT HAPPENING,
OVER THE TOTAL POSSIBLE OUTCOMES
THAT MIGHT HAPPEN.

SO FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU HAD
A COIN THAT YOU WANTED TO TOSS,
YOU HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE
OF GETTING A HEADS OR TAILS,
EQUALLY LIKELY, BECAUSE WE KNOW
THERE'S ONLY TWO
DIFFERENT OUTCOMES,

AND AS WELL, THERE'S ONLY ONE OR
TWO DIFFERENT OUTCOMES TO GET.
SO IF YOU HAVE--IF YOU ROLL HEADS,
YOU HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO PROBABILITY,
OR ODDS, THAT YOU WOULD
GET THAT.

Vanessa holds a piece of paper that reads “Experimental Probability: Probability found by repeating an experiment and observing the results. Experimental Probability equals the number of times events occur over the number of trials.”

She explains, IN TERMS OF EXPERIMENTAL
PROBABILITY, IT'S A PROBABILITY FOUND BY
REPEATING AN EXPERIMENT
WHERE YOU MIGHT GET
A DIFFERENT RESULT,
SO JUST BECAUSE OUR THEORETICAL
PROBABILITY SAYS YOU CAN HAVE
A ONE IN TWO CHANCE OF ROLLING,
UM, A DICE-- SORRY,
FLIPPING A COIN
AND GETTING A TAILS,
IF YOU'RE TO DO THAT TWO TIMES,

YOU HAVE, AGAIN,
A ONE OUT TWO CHANCE--
AND A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE
OF GETTING A TAILS,
BUT MAYBE YOU GET TAILS
ON BOTH TRIES,
MIGHT BE DIFFERENT
PROBABILITY.

AND WE'RE ALSO GOING TO TALK
HOW DOES THAT EFFECT OUR TRIALS,
HOW DOES THAT EFFECT OUR ODDS,
AND WHAT CAN WE DO TO MAKE SURE
THAT THE GAMES WE ARE PLAYING
ARE FAIR?

SO FOR TODAY'S EPISODE
AND LESSON, YOU'RE GOING TO NEED SOME

MARKERS, SOME PAPER, ANY WRITING
UTENSIL IS FINE.
UM, IF YOU HAVE SOME DICE LAYING
AROUND, IF YOU HAVE A COIN,
IF YOU HAVE A SPINNER FROM--
MAYBE ONE OF YOUR BOARD GAMES
THAT YOU COULD USE, IT WOULD
COME IN HANDY TODAY.

AND WE'RE GOING TO LOOK AT
TALLYING,
WE'RE GOING TO LEARN KEEPING
DETAILED NOTES
OF OUR EXPERIMENT
AND HOW THAT CAN EFFECT,
UM, HOW WE CAN READ THOSE
OUTCOMES AS WE PLAY OUR GAMES.

BUT BEFORE WE BEGIN, I'M GOING
TO ASK THAT YOU WATCH A VIDEO
FROM TEACHER-- TEACHER SARAH,
AND SHE'S GOING TO TEACH US
JUST THE IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING
THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THEORETICAL AND
EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

SO WATCH THE VIDEO, TAKE A FEW
NOTES, AND I'LL MEET YOU HERE.

An animated sun rises.

A woman with bobbed brown hair wears a blue shirt. She stands beside a whiteboard. Text beneath Sarah reads “Teacher Sarah.”

The whiteboard reads “Probability: What are the chances? Probability refers to the likelihood of an event happening. There are two kinds of probability: Theoretical and Experimental. Theoretical Probability: In theory, the mathematical/statistical odds of an event occurring based on the number of favourable outcomes and total number of outcomes. Experimental Probability: A measure of the likelihood of an event, based on DATA collected/ obtained from an experiment.”

Sarah says, HI TVOKIDS, I'M TEACHER SARAH,
AND TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT SOMETHING
REALLY COOL AND EXCITING
CALLED "PROBABILITY."

PROBABILITY REFERS TO THE
LIKELIHOOD OF AN EVENT
HAPPENING OR OCCURRING.

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF
PROBABILITY.
THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY HAS TO
DO WITH THE THEORY,
SO IN THEORY, THE MATHEMATICAL
OR STATISTICAL ODDS
OF AN EVENT OCCURRING BASED
ON THE NUMBER
OF FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES, AND THE
TOTAL NUMBER OF OUTCOMES.

NOW EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY,
THAT HAS TO DO
WITH THE LIKELIHOOD
OF AN EVENT HAPPENING
BASED ON DATA COLLECTED
OR OBTAINED
FROM A SPECIFIC EXPERIMENT.

SO TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO TALK
MORE CLOSELY

[Upbeat music plays]

Sarah hits a button and the screen of the whiteboard changes to read “Theoretical Probability: Playing Cards. In a regular deck of playing cards there are: four suits (hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades), Fifty-two cards (not including the jokers), twenty-six red cards, twenty-six black cards, thirteen cards per suit.”

Sarah says, THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
OF PLAYING CARDS.

NOW LET'S SAY YOU WANTED TO TAKE
A REGULAR DECK OF PLAYING CARDS.
IN A REGULAR DECK OF PLAYING
CARDS, THERE ARE FOUR SUITS.
AND DIAMONDS.

OUT OF THOSE FOUR SUITS,
TWO ARE RED AND TWO ARE BLACK.
THERE ARE ALSO TIRTEEN CARDS PER SUIT.

SO SUPPOSE YOU WANTED TO KNOW,
"HMM, WHAT ARE THE ODDS
OF RANDOMLY SELECTING A HEART
"OUT OF THOSE FIFTY-TWO CARDS?"
WELL, IN ORDER TO FIND THAT OUT,
YOU HAVE TO FIND
THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

SO WE NEED TO KNOW TWO THINGS.
THE FIRST THING WE HAVE TO KNOW
IS THE NUMBER OF
FAVOURABLE OR DESIRED OUTCOMES.

IN THIS CASE, WHAT WE WANT TO
KNOW IS HEARTS.

WE ALSO NEED TO KNOW THE TOTAL
NUMBER OF OUTCOMES,
AND IN THIS CASE, IT'S FIFTY-TW0,
'CAUSE THERE ARE FIFTY-TWO CARDS
TO CHOOSE FROM.

Sarah hits a button and the whiteboard changes. It reads “In this case, the favourable outcome (or the one that we want) is hearts. We know that there are thirteen hearts in a regular deck of cards. Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over total number of outcomes. Theoretical Probability (TP) equals Thirteen over Fifty-two. We also know the total number of outcomes. In this case, there are fifty-cards in total so our number of total outcomes is fifty-two.”

SO AS WE SAID,
THE FAVOURABLE OUTCOME,
THE ONE THAT WE WANT, OR THE ONE
WE'RE LOOKING FOR, IS HEARTS.

WE ALSO KNOW
THAT THERE ARE THIRTEEN HEARTS
IN A REGULAR DECK OF CARDS.

SO THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

IS THE NUMBER
OF FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES
DIVIDED BY
THE TOTAL NUMBER OF OUTCOMES.
NOW WE CAN JUST PLUG IN
OUR VALUES.

AS WE SAID, WE KNOW
THAT THERE ARE THIRTEEN HEARTS

OUT OF THOSE FIFTY-TWO CARDS.
AND FIFTY-TWO CARDS...IN TOTAL.
SO TO FIND THE THEORETICAL
PROBABILITY, WE ALWAYS START
WITH OUR FORMULA.

Sarah hits the button and the whiteboard displays a screen for “TP equals number of favourable outcomes over total number of outcomes. Remember to reduce to simplest form!”

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.
WE CAN USE TP FOR SHORT.
THEN WE WRITE OUT THE FORMULA
AND SUBSTITUTE IN OUR VALUES.

SO WE HAD THIRTEEN HEARTS, WHICH IS
OUR FAVOURABLE OUTCOME,
AND FIFTY-TWO CARDS IN TOTAL.
NOW WE HAVE TO REMEMBER, WE
ALWAYS WANT TO REDUCE FRACTIONS
TO SIMPLEST FORM.

SO WHAT THAT MEANS IS WE ARE
LOOKING FOR THE GREATEST
COMMON FACTOR THAT CAN GO INTO
BOTH THE NUMERATOR
AND THE DENOMINATOR.

AND IN THIS CASE, OUR SIMPLEST
FORM WOULD BE ONE QUARTER.

WE'RE ALMOST THERE.
SO YOU MIGHT BE ASKING YOURSELF,
HOW DO YOU EXPRESS PROBABILITY?

WELL, THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT
WAYS WE CAN DO THAT.

WE CAN EXPRESS PROBABILITY
AS A FRACTION.
ONE QUARTER.

AS A PERCENT, OR PER HUNDRED.
TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

OR AS A DECIMAL VALUE BETWEEN
ZERO AND ONE.
SO IN THIS CASE,
OUR DECIMAL WOULD BE TWENTY-FIVE
HUNDREDTHS, OR ZERO POINT TWO FIVE.
ZERO REPRESENTS THE IMPOSSIBLE,

AND ONE REPRESENTS CERTAIN,
SO PROBABILITY IS MOST COMMONLY
EXPRESSED AS A VALUE
BETWEEN ZERO AND ONE, WHICH LETS
US KNOW HOW IMPOSSIBLE
OR HOW CERTAIN AN EVENT IS
OF OCCURRING.

SO YOU CAN TRY THESE ON YOUR OWN.

Sarah hits the button and the whiteboard reads “Try these! One, What is the probability of randomly selecting a CLUB from a regular deck of playing cards?
Two, What is the probability of randomly selecting a SPADE or a HEART from a regular deck of playing cards? What is the probability of randomly selecting a JACK from a regular deck of playing cards?

Sarah asks, WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY
OF RANDOMLY SELECTING A CLUB
FROM A REGULAR DECK
OF PLAYING CARDS?

OUTCOMES DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL NUMBER
OF OUTCOMES.

THIS ONE'S A LITTLE TRICKY,
THE TWO TOGETHER.

AND LASTLY, WHAT MIGHT THE
PROBABILITY BE
OF CHOOSING A JACK IN A REGULAR
DECK OF PLAYING CARDS?

THERE YOU HAVE IT, TVOKIDS.
YOU ARE NOW PROBABILITY
PRO-STARS!

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

Vanessa has a piece of paper propped up on a table in front of her. The paper reads “Flip a coin twenty times! Heads. Tails.”

Text beneath her reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK.
I HOPE YOU ENJOYED THAT VIDEO
FROM TEACHER SARAH.

WE'RE GOING TO AGAIN LOOK AT
THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

TO FLIP A COIN TWENTY TIMES,
WHAT WOULD THE THEORETICAL
PROBABILITY BE
OR LANDING ON TAILS AFTER
THOSE TWENTY FLIPS?

WE KNOW THAT WE HAVE
A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE
OF FLIPPING A COIN AND LANDING

TIMES TWENTY TIMES,
THAT'S THE SAME AS TWENTY OVER ONE.
WE KNOW THAT FRACTION.

NOW I CAN GO ACROSS.
I GET TWENTY OVER TWO,
OR TEN TIMES OUT OF TWENTY
THAT WE SHOULD LAND ON HEADS.
SAME THING FOR TAILS.

I HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO
PROBABILITY AGAIN,
BECAUSE TAILS IS ONE OPTION,
OR ONE OUTCOME,
WHEN THERE'S TWO THAT
AGAIN, AFTER TWENTY FLIPS,
THAT'S THE SAME AS TWENTY OVER ONE,
I HAVE TWENTY OVER TWO
AS MY FRACTION,
IT'S THE SAME AS GETTING TAILS
TEN TIMES.

SO OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
STATES THAT IF YOU WERE TO FLIP
A COIN TWENTY TIMES,
YOU SHOULD GET HEADS TEN TIMES,
AS WELL AS TAILS TEN TIMES.
NOW IF WE ADD TEN AND TEN,
WE KNOW THAT EQUALS TWENTY
AND THAT WOULD BE AFTER THE
TOTAL AMOUNT OF FLIPS.

SO YOU HAVE
AN EQUALLY LIKELY CHANCE
OF GETTING HEADS AS YOU ARE
TO FLIPPING A COIN
AND LANDING ON TAILS.

Vanessa removes the paper and puts a new piece of paper on a board. It reads “Theoretical Probability. One, suit. Two, suits. Face cards.”

Vanessa asks, NOW WHAT ARE THE THEORETICAL
PROBABILITIES FOR THESE OUTCOMES?

IF YOU HAVE A DECK OF CARDS,
YOU KNOW THAT THERE ARE
FOUR SUITS IN THE DECK OF CARDS.

UM, HEARTS, DIAMONDS,
OF SHUFFLING AND PICKING UP
THE TOP CARD
OF GETTING ANY ONE OF THOSE
FOUR SUITS,
YOU HAVE A THEORETICAL
PROBABILITY OF ONE OUT OF FOUR.

AGAIN, THE FOUR SUITS
AND THE PROBABILITY
OF YOU PICKING ONE OF THEM
SO YOU HAVE ONE OUT OF FOUR,
OR A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENTCHANCE,
OR ZERO POINT TWO FIVE, OR TWENTY-FIVE HUNDREDTHS,
ON THAT NUMBER LINE BETWEEN
ZERO AND ONE
CHANCE OF PICKING OUT A HEART.
OKAY, A HEART SUIT OF THE FOUR.

WHAT ARE THE THEORETICAL
PROBABILITY-- WHAT IS THE THEORETICAL
PROBABILITY OF PICKING UP
A HEART OR A DIAMOND,
FOR EXAMPLE.

SO WE KNOW THAT THAT'S TWO
OF THE POSSIBLE FOUR SUITS.
WE HAVE HEARTS, DIAMONDS,

THOSE ARE THE FOUR
POSSIBILITIES.
AND WE SAID THAT WE--
WHAT ARE THE ODDS OF US PICKING
A HEART OR A DIAMOND?
SO TWO OUT OF THE FOUR,
OR ONE HALF,
OR FIFTY PERCENT CHANCE OF YOU PICKING
TWO DIFFERENT SUITS.

FINALLY, WHAT IS THE THEORETICAL
OF YOU PICKING OUT A FACE CARD?

NOW FACE CARDS ARE JACK,
KING, QUEEN, OKAY?
SO THREE OF THEM, AND WE HAVE
FOUR DIFFERENT SUITS.
SO YOU HAVE A PROBABILITY
OF TWELVE OUT OF FIFTY-TWO.
WHICH CAN BE REDUCED DOWN TO,
UH, THREE OVER THIRTEEN.

OF PICKING OUT A FACE CARD
ANYTIME YOU DRAW A CARD
FROM THE DECK. OKAY?

Vanessa shows her Theoretical Probability equation. “Number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

She says, NOW THIS IS ALL GREAT WHEN WE
HAVE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,
OKAY, BUT UNFORTUNATELY,
WE HAVE SOMETHING CALLED "BIAS."
UM, SO WHAT IS BIAS?

BIAS CAN AFFECT THE OUTCOMES
OF AN EXPERIMENT,
OF ANY TYPE OF GAME YOU PLAY,
MEANING THAT IT HAS BEEN ALMOST,
LIKE, RIGGED, OR CHANGED THE ODDS IN
SOMEBODY ELSE'S FAVOUR,
IN SOME CASES.

SOMEONE SAYS "FLIP A COIN,"
AND THEY CHANGE IT TO BOTH SIDES
OF THE COIN BEING TAILS,

THERE WOULD BE ABSOLUTELY NO WAY
FOR YOU TO WIN
IF THEY SAID YOU COULD FLIP A
COIN AND LAND ON TAILS--
UM, WHEN BOTH SIDES ARE HEADS,
FOR EXAMPLE.

Vanessa holds up a spinner divided into blue, white, yellow and red quarters.

[Squeak]

Vanessa says, OKAY, IF YOU HAD A WHEEL,
AND THIS DIDN'T MOVE FROM THE
WHITE SECTION, FOR EXAMPLE,
IT ONLY STAYED HERE
WHEN YOU ROLLED,
OR WHEN YOU SPUN, SORRY,
AND YOU WIN BY LANDING ON ONE OF
THESE THREE SECTIONS,
OTHER SECTIONS, IT WOULD BE
IMPOSSIBLE FOR YOU TO WIN,
SO THAT WOULD NOT ALLOW THIS
THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
TO EVER TAKE EFFECT, OKAY?

SO WHEN YOU GO TO, LIKE,
THE CARNIVAL,
OR YOU'RE GOING TO AN ARCADE,
YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT
THE GAMES THAT YOU'RE PLAYING
ARE FREE OF BIAS,
MEANING THAT THEY ARE FAIR,
AND THE PROBABILITY THAT
YOU CALCULATE
CAN ACTUALLY HAPPEN, OKAY?

SO THAT'S SOMETHING FOR YOU
TO LOOK OUT FOR.

SO NOW WE'RE GOING TO WATCH A
VIDEO FROM LOOK KOOL,
WHERE HAMZA IS GOING TO DISCUSS
THE PROBABILITY
OF DIFFERENT CARNIVAL GAMES
THAT YOU ARE GOING TO ABSOLUTELY
ENJOY WATCHING
AND LEARNING A LOT FROM.
SO CHECK IT OUT,
AND I'LL MEET YOU HERE
AFTER THE VIDEO.

The animated sun shines in a blue sky.

Toast pops out of Kool Cat’s back. Burnt into the toast is “Hands-on.” Beneath that is are two small paw prints.

[Energetic music plays]

A male announcer says, HANDS ON!

A photo of a smiling man appears. The man has short brown hair. He wears a red vest over a plaid shirt and has a cream-coloured jacket over the vest.

Hamza says, JUSTIN STUDIES
BOTH SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING.
HE PLANS TO BE A DOCTOR
AND USE HIS SKILLS
TO HELP PEOPLE
ALL OVER THE WORLD!

Justin stands behind a red table with a whiteboard propped up on an easel to his right. To his left stand a boy with black hair and a girl with long brown hair.

Justin explains, SO TODAY WE'RE GOING TO BE
DOING AN EXPERIMENT
THAT WE'RE GONNA DO THAT
IS BY LAUNCHING ANTACID ROCKETS.
AND EVERY TIME THEY LAUNCH,
YOU ARE GOING TO TELL ME
THE TIME,
AND I'M GOING TO PLOT IT ON
THIS GRAPH RIGHT HERE
THAT SAYS THE NUMBER OF ROCKETS
ON THE Y AXIS,
AND THE NUMBER OF SECONDS
IT TOOK TO LAUNCH ON THE X AXIS.

WE'RE GONNA PUT
OUR LAB GOGGLES ON.

YOU'RE GONNA POP IT IN THERE,
LET IN THE WATER,
THERE WE GO.
OH, IT'S FIZZING! IT'S FIZZING!
IT'S FIZZING!
SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE!
OKAY, PUT IT UPSIDE DOWN.

[Lid snaps]

Justin says, WHOA!

The girl says, FIVE SECONDS.

Justin says, FIVE SECONDS, OKAY.
SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE!
BIG STEP BACK.

The boy and Justin say, WHOA.

[Pop]

The girl says, THAT WAS TEN SECONDS.

Justin says, OKAY, PUT IT UPSIDE DOWN.

They say, WHOA!

[Laughing]

The girl says, TEN SECONDS AGAIN.

The boy asks, WHERE'D IT GO?

Justin says,
HERE WE GO.

The boy says, IT'S SURPRISING ME EVERY TIME.

They say, WHOA!

The girl says, ABOUT TWENTY SECONDS.

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

The girl says, I THINK IT'S GOING TO BE A
LITTLE BIT LONGER.

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Laughing]

Justin says, SO NOW THAT WE'RE DONE LAUNCHING
ALL OF OUR ROCKETS,
THIS GRAPH IS SHOWING THAT
AT TEN SECONDS,
THERE WERE A LOT OF ROCKETS THAT
LAUNCHED, RIGHT?

The boys says,
RIGHT.

Justin says, YEAH, 'CAUSE WE HAVE A
WHOLE BUNCH OF DOTS THERE.
WERE THERE A LOT THAT LAUNCHED
AFTER TEN SECONDS?

The girl says, NOT QUITE A LOT.

Justin traces a line over the highest dots over each number.

Justin says, WHAT THIS ACTUALLY INTRODUCES IS
THE IDEA OF A BELL CURVE.
AND WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IS A BELL
IN THE END.

AND WHAT IT SHOWS US IS THAT
THINGS THAT ARE HIGHER
ON THE BELL ARE MORE PROBABLE.

The girl says, YEAH, YEAH.

A robotic female voice says,
TO BE MORE CERTAIN OF WHEN
SOMETHING IS PROBABLY
GOING TO HAPPEN, LIKE THE
AVERAGE TIME IT TAKES
TO POP POPCORN, IT IS BEST TO
DO MANY TESTS TO GET
AN ACCURATE BELL CURVE.

[Popcorn pops]

Justin says,
NOW I'VE GOT SOMETHING REALLY
COOL TO SHOW YOU.
HERE WE GO, BACK, BACK HERE.

Justin flips over multiple containers connected to board. He and the two children back up to a road.

The boy says, YEP, YEP, YEP.

Justin says, LET'S WATCH IT.

Rockets pop.

[Popping]

Justin says, WHOA! THERE'S ONE.
OKAY, TWO.

The boy says, OH, TWO! THREE.

Justin says, YEP.

The girl says, FOUR, FIVE...

Justin says, YEAH.

The children count, SIX...
YEP, SEVEN.
EIGHT, NINE.

Justin says, OH, YEP.

The girl counts, TEN, ELEVEN.

Justin exclaims, WHOA!

The boy says, THEY'RE ALL POPPING.

Justin says, HERE THEY GO. YEAH, YEAH. WOW!

Rockets pop and the lids land on the pavement.

[Popping, clattering]

Justin says, IT'S RAINING ROCKETS.

[Clattering]

Justin says, YOU GONNA KEEP GOING? YEP.
SO WE'VE BEEN WATCHING, RIGHT?
THERE WAS A FEW,
AND THEN A WHOLE BUNCH, AND NOW
THERE'S JUST A COUPLE.

[Popping]

Hamza says,
I SEE, USING MORE SAMPLES
CREATED A MORE ACCURATE
BELL CURVE.

NICE JOB, INVESTIGATORS!
WHAT DID YOU DISCOVER?

The boy says, WELL, I'M COOL WITH LAUNCHING
ONE THOUSAND OF THESE ROCKETS
'CAUSE I KNOW IT WILL JUST
MAKE MY BELL CURVE
EVEN MORE ACCURATE.

Justin nods.

The girl says, YEAH.

Hamza says, THANKS, INVESTIGATORS!
THANK YOU, JUSTIN!

The boy and girl wave and say, BYE!

[Honk, squealing brakes]

Kool Cat and a yellow cat zoom through a rope

The announcer says, CHALLENGE

[Cheering]

Hamza stand in a field in front of a row of blue and yellow flags. He and four children wear colourful curly wigs. A boy and a girl wear blue shirts while, on the other team, a boy and girl wear yellow shirts. A member of each team sits on a chair on a wooden platform. Over each chair, an empty balloon dangles on a pole. On the ground, resting on both platforms, is a meter with a needle on it, showing blue changing to purple changing to red.

Hamza says, WELCOME BACK TO THE
LOOK COOL
PROBABILITY CARNIVAL!
TEAM BLUE, TEAM YELLOW,
ARE YOU PUMPED?

The children yell, YEAH!

Hamza says, EXCELLENT, BECAUSE IN THIS PART
OF THE CHALLENGE,
WE'RE GOING TO SEE WHICH TEAM
CAN PUMP THE MOST AIR
INTO THE BALLOON WITHOUT
POPPING IT.

OF COURSE, YOU'RE GOING TO NEED
TO HAVE AN IDEA
OF HOW MANY PUMPS A BALLOON CAN
TAKE BEFORE IT POPS,
SO I'VE MADE A PROBABILITY SCALE
TO GUIDE YOU.

Flashback, Hamza pumps and looks at a balloon as it fills.

[Pumping]

Hamza narrates, I DISCOVERED IT WAS HIGHLY
UNLIKELY THAT ANY BALLOONS
WOULD POP BETWEEN ZERO AND NINE
PUMPS OF AIR.

BUT AFTER FIFTEEN PUMPS,
IT BECAME LIKELY.
NOW ALL OF THEM BROKE,
BUT SOME DID.

A balloon pops and water spills out of it.

[Splash]

Hamza says, AFTER FIFTEEN PUMPS, THE BALLOONS
WERE VERY LIKELY TO BURST.

[Splash]

Hamza says, AND MOST DID.
AND ONCE I GOT TO TWENTY-SEVEN PUMPS,
EVERY BALLOON POPPED.
IT WAS DEFINITE!

In the present, Hamza says, SO IT'S A GAME OF CHICKEN.
EACH TEAM GETS TO PUMP.
THE MORE AIR YOU PUMP,
THE MORE POINTS YOU WIN,
BUT BE CAREFUL!
BURST YOUR BALLOON AND YOU LOSE!

ALL RIGHT, TEAM BLUE!
SIX PUMPS, LET'S GO.

[Pumping]

Everyone counts pumps,
TWO, THREE,
FOUR, FIVE, SIX.

Hamza says, TEAM YELLOW, SIX PUMPS.

[Pumping]

Everyone counts pumps,
ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR,
FIVE, SIX.

Hamza says, THREE MORE PUMPS.
ONE, TWO, THREE.
ONE, TWO, THREE.

THAT BRINGS US UP TO NINE PUMPS.
ANYMORE THAN THIS,
AND WE LEAVE THE SAFE ZONE.

LET'S TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT THIS
WITH MY MIND'S EYE GLASSES.

A robotic voice says,
WE CANNOT KNOW THE EXACT
OUTCOME OF THIS CHALLENGE
BECAUSE THE STRUCTURE
OF EACH BALLOON
MAY BE SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT
AND CHALLENGERS
MIGHT PUMP SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT
AMOUNTS OF AIR
DEPENDING ON HOW HARD
THEY PUMP.

THAT'S WHY WE SAY SOMETHING
IS "LIKELY" OR "UNLIKELY."

Hamza says,
WE ARE NOW AT TWELVE.
IT'S BECOMING MORE AND MORE LIKELY.

NINETEEN, TWENTY.
TWENTY-ONE, TWENTY-TWO, TWENTY-THREE.

A child mutters, THAT WATER...

Hamza says, TWENTY-FOUR.

The balloon over the blue team member bursts and water drenches him.

[Pop]

[Cheering]

[Laughing]

A replay shows the water drenching the blue team member.

Hamza says, OH, WE HAVE A WINNER,
AND UNFORTUNATELY,
DONATO GETS SOAKED AGAIN!
TEAM YELLOW TAKES IT
WITH TWENTY-FOUR PUMPS!

Team yellow cheers, TEAM YELLOW!

Hamza says, CONGRATULATIONS!

[Upbeat music plays]

Hamza sits on a chair under an empty balloon, holding a bucket of popcorn. The teams stand beside two pumps.

Hamza says, WELL, THAT WAS NERVE-WRACKING.
CONGRATULATIONS TO BOTH TEAMS.
YOU GET TO KEEP YOUR CLOWN WIGS
TO REMIND YOU OF THE TIME
YOU LIVED ON THE EDGE.

Donato says, YEAH, WELL, WE'VE GOT A GIFT
FOR YOU, TOO.

[Pumping]

Hamza eats popcorn and says, NOT VERY LIKELY.
NOTHING IS GOING TO HAPPEN.
PUMP IT UP SOME MORE.

[Pop]

The balloon full of water bursts over Hamza.

[Splash]

[Laughing]

Hamza eats popcorn and says, THIS IS STILL PRETTY GOOD,
YOU GUYS WANT SOME?
WANT SOME POPCORN? NO, OKAY.

Kool Cat rolls his eyes.

Hamza says, AH! I THINK I'VE STILL GOT SOME
WATER IN MY EARS.

BUT AT LEAST I UNDERSTAND
PROBABILITY A LOT BETTER,
WHICH IS WHY I THINK
I CAN BEAT KOOL CAT
AT ONE MORE COIN FLIP.

An animated four-leaf clover jumps on a table beside Kool Cat.

The clover asks, ARE YA FEELING LUCKY, PUNK?

Hamza says, I'VE GOT SOMETHING BETTER
THAN LUCK, PUNK.
I'VE GOT MATH.

Hamza blows the clover off of the table.

[Blowing, clover yelps]

The clover lands on the floor.

The clover says, OOF, I'M STARTING TO FEEL A
LITTLE UNLUCKY.

A horseshoe falls on the clover.

[Thunk]

The clover groans, AW, MAN.

Hamza says, ALL RIGHT, KOOL CAT, WHAT DO YOU
SAY TO ONE MORE COIN FLIP?
LOSER HAS TO DO THE WINNER'S
CHORES FOR A WEEK. DEAL?

[Meow]

Kool Cat nods vigorously.

Hamza says, LET 'ER FLIP!

He flips a coin.

[Slide whistle]

Hamza says, TAILS!
HAH! IT'S TAILS! I'VE GOT YOU!

[Meow]

Hamza says, YOU WANT TO KNOW HOW I KNEW
IT WOULD BE TAILS
THIS TIME AROUND?

THE PROBABILITY OF IT
LANDING TAILS
SO MANY TIMES IN A ROW
WAS SO LOW THAT I FIGURED
KOOL CAT WAS PROBABLY PLAYING
A TRICK ON ME.
THAT COIN WAS TAILS ON BOTH
SIDES, WASN'T IT?

A quarter with moose heads on each side spins.

Hamza says, I MEAN, IT WAS
A PRETTY FUNNY TRICK.
BUT NOW YOU'VE GOTTA DO ALL MY
CHORES FOR A WEEK.

Kool Cat hangs his head down low.

Hamza says, SEE YOU NEXT TIME FOR MORE
LOOK COOL!

Hamza says, NO, NO. I WASN'T KIDDING.
THOSE ARE THE RULES.

[Energetic music plays]

End credits roll.

The TVO Kids logo appears.

[Whee, giggling]

The apartment eleven productions logo appears.

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

Vanessa gestures at the piece of paper that reads “Experimental Probability: Probability found by repeating an experiment and observing the results. Experimental Probability equals the number of times events occur over the number of trials.”

Text reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, HI AGAIN!
WE'RE GOING TO NOW TALK ABOUT
EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY
LIKE WE TALKED ABOUT AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE EPISODE.

SO WHAT IS IT?

IT'S A PROBABILITY FOUND BY
REPEATING AN EXPERIMENT
AND OBSERVING OR WRITING DOWN
THE RESULTS.

SO HOW DO WE FRAME THAT IN TERMS
OF A FRACTION?
WE HAVE THE NUMBER OF EVENTS
THAT OCCUR,
OVER THE NUMBER OF TRIALS.
SO LET'S SHOW WHAT
I MEAN BY THAT.

Vanessa reveals a piece of paper with “Even” and “Odd” written down the side of it. The headings on the paper are “Result” (over even and odd), “Tally” and “Relative Frequency.”

Vanessa says, SO IF I HAD A DICE HERE,
AND IT'S A SIX-SIDED DIE, OKAY,
LET'S PRETEND IT'S FREE OF BIAS,
ALL THE SIDES ARE EQUALLY
THE SAME SIZE
AND I DID MEASURE THEM OUT,
OKAY, WHAT IS THE LIKELIHOOD
THAT I ROLL EVEN NUMBERS,
SO THAT WOULD BE, LIKE, LANDING
ON A TWO, FOUR, OR SIX,
COMPARED TO WHAT IS
THE PROBABILITY IF I LAND--
THAT I LAND ON ODD NUMBERS
WHEN I ROLL?
ONE, THREE, OR FIVE.

NOW OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
WOULD SAY
THAT YOU HAVE A FIFTY-FIFTY CHANCE
OF GETTING ODDS--

EVENS VERSUS ODDS, OKAY?
BECAUSE WE HAVE THREE OUT OF
THE SIX ARE EVEN,

AND WE ALSO HAVE THREE OF THE
SIX NUMBERS ON THE DICE ARE ODD.

BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE
ACTUALLY TRY THE EXPERIMENT
WITH, LET'S SAY, TEN TRIALS.

HOW MANY TIMES WILL I GET AN ODD
NUMBER WHEN I ROLL
VERSUS HOW MANY TIMES WILL I GET
AN EVEN?

IF YOU SEE, UM, HERE IS--
A TALLY,
OR A WAY THAT YOU CAN SET UP
SO WE HAVE OUR RESULT,
IT CAN EITHER BE EVEN OR ODD.
I'M GOING TO--
AS I ROLL THE DICE,
I'M GOING TO TALLY HOW MANY
TIMES I GET EVEN
OUT OF THE TEN ROLLS,
AND HOW MANY TIMES
I ROLLED AN ODD NUMBER
OF THE TEN ROLLS.

AND THEN WE'RE GOING
RELATIVE FREQUENCY AT THE END.
THAT'S OUR FRACTION, OKAY?

SO LET'S GIVE IT A TRY.
LET'S TRY OUR EXPERIMENT
OF HOW MANY TIMES
WE CAN GET EVEN OR ODD
WHEN I ROLL THE DICE TEN TIMES.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]
OKAY, SO MY FIRST ROLL
WAS A ONE.

SO ON MY TALLY SHEET,
I MARK A ONE UNDER ODD.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

MY NEXT, I ROLLED A TWO.
SO THAT'S AN EVEN NUMBER,
I PUT A TALLY, OR A MARK
UNDER EVEN.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

ON MY THIRD ROLL,
I GOT FIVE,
THAT'S AN ODD NUMBER.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A SIX ON MY FOURTH ROLL.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A FOUR.
THAT'S AN EVEN NUMBER.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A FOUR AGAIN.

SO WE'RE OVER HALFWAY THROUGH
OUR TRIAL,
AND AFTER SIX ROLLS, I SEE THAT
I'VE ROLLED ONE MORE EVEN
THAN WHAT IS PREDICTED
THAT I WOULD HAVE ROLLED
AT THIS TIME.

I SHOULD HAVE,
UNDER THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,
ROLLED THREE EVEN AND THREE ODD,
SINCE THEY'RE EQUALLY LIKELY,
BUT YOU CAN SEE HERE THAT MY
EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY
IS INDEED DIFFERENT COMPARED TO
MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, TWO.
EVEN RESULTS.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, ONE. ODD.
TWO MORE ROLLS, STAY WITH ME.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, THREE.
NOW LET'S SEE
IF I CAN TIE IT UP.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, I HOPE I CAN!

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, OKAY, AND I GOT A SIX
FOR MY LAST.
OKAY, SO WHAT DOES--
WHAT DO OUR RESULTS SHOW?

OUT OF TEN TRIALS OF MY
EXPERIMENT,
I GOT SIX OUT OF TEN
WERE EVEN NUMBERS THAT I ROLLED.

FOUR OUT OF 10 TEN ROLLS
LANDED ON AN ODD NUMBER.

NOW IS THIS DIFFERENT FROM WHAT
WE WOULD HAVE PREDICTED
WITH OUR THEORETICAL
PROBABILITY? YES, OKAY?

SO WE SEE THAT EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY,
WHEN YOU'RE DOING THE ACTIVITY,
DOESN'T ALWAYS EQUAL
THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

OKAY, LET'S TRY ONE MORE EXAMPLE.

Vanessa removes the tally paper for the die and reveals a paper with “red, blue, yellow, green” under the “Result” column. Vanessa picks up her spinner.

Vanessa says, I HAVE MY TRUSTED SPINNER HERE.
OKAY, WHAT ARE THE ODDS AFTER,
LET'S SAY, UM, EIGHT ROLLS--
OR EIGHT SPINS
OF ME LANDING ON THESE FOUR
SECTIONS, OKAY?

UM...MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
WOULD SAY
THAT AFTER EIGHT ROLLS, SORRY,
UM, I WOULD HAVE ROLLED--
SORRY, SPUN RED TWICE,
BLUE TWICE, YELLOW TWICE,
AND WHITE TWICE.

WHY? BECAUSE THIS IS FREE OF BIAS,
I DID MEASURE THIS AS WELL,
AS BEST AS I COULD,
AND CUT THEM-- ALL SECTIONS ARE
THE EXACT SAME, OKAY?

UM, MY SPINNER DOES WORK
THE SAME.
I TRIED MY BEST TO DO IT WITH
THE SAME PROCESS
AND ENERGY FOR EACH PULL, OKAY?
SO THAT WOULD LIKELY BE ALMOST
THE SAME.

MY SPINNER MOVES THE SAME WAY.
IT DOESN'T GET CAUGHT
ON ANY NUMBER--
OR ANY SECTIONS, I SHOULD SAY.
SO EACH SECTION HAS AN EQUAL
AFTER-- UM, FOUR ROLLS,
EACH SECTION COULD TECHNICALLY
HAVE BEEN PICKED ONCE,

AND AGAIN, AFTER ANOTHER SPIN
FOUR TIMES,
EACH SECTION COULD BE PICKED
AGAIN, OKAY?

BUT LET'S SEE AFTER EIGHT ROLLS
WHAT COLOUR I LAND ON THE MOST.
AND LET'S SEE IF IT'S DIFFERENT
FROM THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

SO LET'S DO ANOTHER EXPERIMENT.
WE'LL START AT THE WHITE EACH
TIME, OKAY?

[Spin, clunk]

AND MY FIRST ROLL IS ON YELLOW.
MAN, DO I WISH
I WAS RIGHT-HANDED NOW.
OKAY.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, OKAY, SO THERE IS MY FIRST ROLL.
MY SECOND ROLL.
ACTUALLY, LET'S START FROM THE WHITE
SO I DON'T CHANGE ANYTHING.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, THERE'S A RED.
START FROM THE WHITE.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, WE HAVE A BLUE.
START FROM THE WHITE.
OKAY, I'M CATCHING MYSELF
WITH THAT BIAS.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, AND A WHITE.
SO IF YOU CAN BELIEVE IT,
AFTER FOUR ROLLS, EACH SECTION
WAS PICKED ONCE, OKAY?
SO OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,
FOR NOW, IS WORKING.

LET'S DO FOUR MORE ROLLS
TO SEE WHERE WE--
WHAT OUR EXPERIMENTAL
PROBABILITY ENDS UP BEING.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, WE HAVE A WHITE.
I'M GOING TO ROLL THAT ONE AGAIN
'CAUSE IT GOT CAUGHT, SO...

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, BLUE.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, YELLOW.

(LAUGHING)

Vanessa says, SO FUNNY.
OKAY, AND BACK.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, AND THEN WHITE. OKAY.

SO WE HAVE ONE, TWO, THREE,
FOUR, FIVE, SIX, SEVEN, EIGHT ROLLS.

LET'S SEE WHAT OUR FINAL
FREQUENCIES, OR FRACTIONS, ARE.

OKAY, SO I GOT RED
ONE OUT OF EIGHT TIMES
ON THE ROLL.

OKAY, I GOT-- I ROLLED BLUE TWO
OUT OF EIGHT TIMES,
THE SAME AS ONE OUT OF FOUR
WHEN WE REDUCE IT
TO THE LOWEST TERM.

I GOT TWO OUT OF EIGHT ROLLS--
SPINS WERE YELLOW.

THE SAME AS-- WHICH AS THE SAME
AS ONE OUT OF FOUR,
OR TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

AND FOR WHITE, I RECEIVED THREE
OUT OF EIGHT--
SEE THAT, UM...
SPINS WERE WHITE.

SO ACTUALLY WE KNOW THAT THE
THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
OF LANDING ON EACH SPIN TWICE--
EACH SECTION TWICE
DID NOT COME TRUE IN THIS CASE,
BECAUSE WE HAVE THE WHITE
SECTION BEING LANDED ON
WITH HIGHER FREQUENCY AS
COMPARED TO THE RED SECTION.

Vanessa picks up a deck of cards.

Vanessa says, OKAY, SO FINALLY,
IF I SAID TO YOU,
YOU HAVE A ONE
OUT OF FOUR CHANCE
OF PICKING A HEART

AFTER-- AFTER YOU SHUFFLE
AND YOU PICK THE TOP CARD.
OKAY, LET'S SEE.

WE'RE GOING TO TRY THAT TWICE, OKAY?

SO LET'S SEE IF WE CAN GET
A HEART TWO TIMES.
SO THERE'S A ONE
OUT OF EIGHT CHANCE,

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
TELLS US THAT I CAN GET A HEART
TWO TIMES. SO...

Vanessa draws the top card from the deck.

Vanessa says, A FOUR OF SPADES.

She shuffles the card back into the deck.

Vanessa says, I RE-- I PUT THAT INTO THE DECK
SO THAT WE HAVE A FAIR GAME.
WE'RE NOT CHANGING
THE NUMBER OF CARDS,
WE'RE NOT INTRODUCING
ANY BIAS TO THIS.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, THE SECOND.
OKAY, I HAVE A CLUB.
SO NEITHER TIME DID I
PICK UP A HEART.

OKAY, SO AGAIN, MY EXPERIMENTAL
PROBABILITY IS DIFFERENT
THAT MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

OKAY, SO NOT ALWAYS ARE THEY
THE SAME,
AND THAT WHY WE TAKE A CHANCE
AND WE PLAY THESE GAMES,
AND WE LEARN DIFFERENT THINGS, OKAY?

I WOULD LOVE FOR YOU TO WATCH
THIS NEXT VIDEO
FROM MATH XPLOSION, OKAY?

OUT OF A GROUP OF TWENTY-THREE PEOPLE,
TWO PEOPLE WILL LIKELY
HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY.
HOW DOES THAT WORK?
JUST WATCH AND SEE.

I'LL MEET YOU HERE AFTER THE VIDEO.

The animated sun rises.

[Rap music plays]

Children rap, WHAT A HIT
IT'S NOT A TRICK
IT'S MATHXPLOSION
JUST FOR YOU, COOL AND NEW
MATHXPLOSION

[Energetic music plays]

Eric has red hair and a red beard. He stands in front of a table
filled with party supplies. He holds a metal bowl and cracks an egg into it.

TWENTY-THREE PEOPLE IN A ROOM,
FOR EXAMPLE,
TWO PEOPLE ARE VERY LIKELY TO
HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY?

Eric adds white powder to the bowl.

He says, IT'S TRUE, IT'S ALL ABOUT
SOMETHING CALLED "PROBABILITY."
WITH PROBABILITY, WE CAN MEASURE
HOW LIKELY IT IS
THAT SOMETHING WILL OCCUR.

Eric pours milk into the bowl.

He says, AND BIRTHDAYS ARE A GREAT,
AND DELICIOUS, PLACE TO START.

Eric puts a lid on the bowl and snaps his fingers. He lifts the lid and reveals a fully-baked cake.

[Snap, sigh]

Eric says, AH! DELICIOUS.
NOW LET ME PROVE MY THEORY.

Eric stands by a screen.

He asks, WHERE DO I FIND TWENTY-TWO OTHER PEOPLE?
HMM... OH! I KNOW.
THE VIDEO CALL MY WHOLE ENTIRE
FAMILY MAKES TO ME
EVERY... SINGLE... DAY.

HERE WE GO. HEY GUYS!

Twenty-two people appear in small boxes across the screen. They appear to be Eric in different costumes. They all talk at once.

[Everyone talks at once]

Eric says, SO GOOD TO SEE YOU.
YOU GUYS LOOK GREAT! PERFECT.

APPRENTICES, TO DO THIS,
YOU FIRST NEED
TO SET UP A TALLY.
I'VE CREATED MINE
BY WRITING DOWN
EVERYONE'S BIRTHDAYS.

PERFECT, I THINK EVERYONE
IS THERE. GREAT!

NEXT, COMPARE THE TALLY TO SEE
IF ANY DATES MATCH.

Eric looks at his tallies.

He says, UH...AH!
AUNT ERICA AND BABY ERICO,
YOU GUYS HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY!
MARCH TWENTY-THIRD.
DID YOU GUYS KNOW THAT?
OF COURSE YOU DID.
YOU'RE IN THE SAME FAMILY.

REMEMBER, THE MORE PEOPLE YOU
THE GREATER THE PROBABILITY
THAT TWO PEOPLE
WILL SHARE THE SAME BIRTHDAY.
MAKES SENSE!

WELL, THAT'S IT, GUYS.
THANKS FOR TUNING IN!
WE'LL SEE YOU SOON. BYE!
BYE, MOM.

BYE, GUYS.

[Everyone talks]

Eric says, THANKS FOR HELPING OUT!

Eric draws a coin on a chalkboard.

[Scratching]

He says, CHECK THIS OUT.
A GREAT EXAMPLE OF PROBABILITY
IS A COIN TOSS.

An animated stick figure flips a coin into the air.

[Slide whistle]

Eric says, BECAUSE THERE ARE ONLY TWO
SIDES OF THE COIN,
IT MEANS THERE ARE ONLY TWO POSSIBILITIES.
THERE IS A ONE-IN-TWO
PROBABILITY, OR CHANCE,
THAT THE COIN WILL LAND
AND A ONE-IN-TWO PROBABILITY
THAT IT WILL LAND ON TAILS.

Eric says, HEADS! MY TURN FIRST! YES!

SO THERE YOU HAVE IT.
I'VE SHARED
YET ANOTHER AMAZING SECRET.
HOW TO FIGURE OUT HOW LIKELY
SOMETHING WILL BE
WITH THE SECRET OF PROBABILITY.

JUST REMEMBER,
THE MORE PEOPLE YOU COUNT,
THE MORE LIKELY IT IS
THAT SOMEONE WILL SHARE
A BIRTHDAY.

TRY IT OUT WITH TWENTY-TWO
YOU'LL BE SURE TO WOW THEM.
AND REMEMBER!
IT'S NOT MAGIC, IT'S MATH.

[Harp music plays]

A candle burns in a piece of cake.

[Energetic music plays]

“MathXplosion.”

The animated sun shines.

Vanessa sits beside a piece of paper that reads “My game twenty-five percent probability.” In a column under “Result,” H, S, C, and D are listed. The headings beside “Result” read “Tally, R.F.”

Text beneath Vanessa reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK.

WASN'T THAT A GREAT VIDEO?
SO INTERESTING.
WHO SHARES THE SAME BIRTHDAY,
AND SEE IF THAT PROBABILITY
WORKS OUT FOR YOU!

IN OUR CONSOLIDATION SECTION,
WE ARE GOING TO BRING EVERYTHING
WE'VE LEARNED TOGETHER
FROM TODAY'S LESSONS, OKAY?

WE ARE GOING TO LOOK AT CREATING
OUR OWN EXPERIMENTS
FOR PROBABILITY.

SO THIS IS WHERE YOU CAN BRING
AND TRY TO MAKE A FUN GAME FOR
YOU AND YOUR FAMILY OR FRIENDS.

OKAY, SO WHAT IS EXPERIMENTAL
PROBABILITY, AGAIN?

IT'S THE PROBABILITY THAT'S
FOUND BY, UM,
CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS AND
RECORDING THE RESULTS.

SO AGAIN, IT'S THE NUMBER OF
TIMES AN EVENT OCCURS
OVER THE TOTAL NUMBER OF TRIALS.
SO WHAT I WOULD LIKE FOR YOU
TO DO IS CREATE
GIVING YOURSELF A PROBABILITY
NEEDED TO WIN.

OKAY, SO LET'S SAY MY GAME

REQUIRES A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY,

OR ONE OUT OF FOUR, TO WIN.

SO I'M GONNA SAY TO MY FRIENDS,
"I HAVE A DECK OF CARDS HERE,
OKAY, "AND THEY'RE FREE FROM BIAS,
I HAVE FIFTY-TWO CARDS."

THEY CAN COUNT THEM.
THIRTEEN FROM EACH SUIT.

"I AM GOING TO ASK YOU
TO PICK A CARD,"EIGHT—
EIGHT SEPARATE TIMES OR TRIALS, OKAY?"

SO WE PICK UP A CARD,
WE NOTE WHAT THE RESULT IS.
IS IT A HEART, IS IT A SPADE,
IS IT A CLUB OR A DIAMOND?
OKAY, WE WOULD MARK DOWN
WHAT IT IS,
THEN I REPLACE IT ON THE DECK
SO THAT THE ODDS
DON'T CHANGE, OKAY?

YOU COULD PLAY A GAME WHERE YOU
COULD REMOVE THE CARD
AND THEN YOUR ODDS WOULD BE
ACTUALLY BETTER FOR YOU, TOO,

IF YOU WANTED TO PICK A HEART,
IF YOU REMOVED A DIFFERENT CARD
FROM THE PACK.
BUT FOR TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO
KEEP BIASES ALL THE SAME.

SO THAT MEANS YOU HAVE EQUAL
ODDS THROUGHOUT
PROBABILITY GAME.

OKAY, SO MY GAME IS--
I'M HOPING FOR EACH SUIT
TO BE PICKED TWO TIMES,
BECAUSE WE HAVE, UM, OUT OF
EIGHT TRIES,
TWO OUT OF EIGHT IS THE SAME
AS ONE OVER FOUR,
WHICH IS A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY
TO WIN, OKAY?

SO LET'S SEE IF I CAN PICK EACH
SUIT TWO TIMES,
AND IF WE DO, I WIN.

OKAY, GAVE IT A GOOD SHUFFLE.
SO MAKE SURE THAT YOU CREATE
MAKE SURE YOU HAVE YOUR
PROBABILITY GAME.
AND MAKE SURE THAT YOU EXPLAIN
IT TO YOUR FRIENDS OR FAMILY
OR WHOEVER YOU'RE PLAYING WITH
SO YOU UNDERSTAND THE RULES
AND HOW TO WIN.

Vanessa draws the top card.

Vanessa says, MY FIRST CARD IS A...
I'M MARKING THAT--
OR SORRY, THAT'S A CLUB.
SORRY, SORRY.
MARKING THAT DOWN.
I'M NOT TRYING TO CHEAT,
I PROMISE.
MARK THAT DOWN, AND I RETURN IT
BACK INTO THE DECK.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, MY SECOND, AGAIN?
THE JACK OF CLUBS,
MARK THAT DOWN.
OKAY, I COULD GIVE IT A SHUFFLE
AFTER EACH TIME.

I WON'T, BECAUSE I DIDN'T
THE FIRST TIME,
AND I DON'T WANT TO CHANGE THE
RULES OF THE GAME, OKAY?

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, SO THE THIRD CARD I PULLED
IS A HEART.
MARK THAT DOWN.

SO I'M ALMOST HALF WAY THERE.
REPLACE IT INTO THE DECK.

Vanessa draws the top card.

ANOTHER HEART.
OKAY, SO NOW I SEE THAT I HAVE
TWO HEARTS, TWO CLUBS.

SO NOW I GET TWO SPADES
AND TWO DIAMONDS,
THAT MEANS TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY
FOR EACH, AND I WON!
LET'S SEE IF I CAN GET IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

A HEART.

[Sigh]

Vanessa says, THE QUEEN OF HEARTS THOUGH,
MY FAVOURITE.
MY FAVOURITE CARD IN THE DECK.
REPLACE IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, I HAVE A SPADE.
REPLACE IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, I HAVE CLUBS.
REPLACE IT.

SO I HAVE-- WHAT DO I HAVE?
ONE MORE. ONE MORE.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, AND I HAVE ANOTHER CLUB.
SO IT SEEMS AS THOUGH MY DECK
IS REALLY CLUB-HEAVY.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, SO WHAT IS MY RELATIVE
FREQUENCY, OR WHAT IS THE FRACTION?
I HAD THREE OUT OF EIGHT FLIPS
ENDED UP BEING A HEART.

ONE OUT OF EIGHT ENDED UP

I HAD FOUR OUT OF MY EIGHT
UM, FLIPS, OR, UH--
CARDS THAT I PICKED
BEING A CLUB,
OF EIGHT TRIALS
END UP BEING A DIAMOND.

SO UNFORTUNATELY, WE DIDN'T WIN
OUR GAME, MY GAME,
BECAUSE I WAS LOOKING FOR
A PROBABILITY OF TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT,
AND I DIDN'T RECEIVE IT IN ANY
OF THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY COLUMNS.

BUT THAT'S OKAY, BECAUSE WE HAD
FUN AND WE SHARED A LAUGH.

SO WHAT'S YOUR GAME GOING TO BE?
WOULD LIKE TO WIN,
OR WHAT PROBABILITY
AND PERCENTAGE I SHOULD SAY.
THINK OF A GAME USING ONE
OF THE DIFFERENT
PROBABILITY EXPERIMENTAL PROPS
THAT YOU HAVE,
AND MAKE THEM FUN,
AND SHARE A LAUGH WITH YOUR FRIENDS.

SO NOW IS AN EPISODE

AGENT OLIVE HAS TO USE HER
PROBABILITY POWERS
DURING A TOURNAMENT OF ROCK,
PAPER, SCISSORS
TO BEAT THE VILLAINS AND HEAD
CAN SHE DO IT? LET'S FIND OUT.

I'LL MEET YOU HERE
AFTER THE BREAK.

The animated sun shines.

Olives wears her brown hair in a tight ponytail.

Olive says, MY NAME IS AGENT OLIVE.
THIS IS MY PARTNER, AGENT OTTO.

Otto has black hair. Both Olive and Otto wear an Odd Squad agent uniform with a white dress shirt, red tie, and dark blue jacket.

Olive says, THIS IS THE FINAL FRONTIER,
BUT BACK TO OTTO AND ME.
WE WORK FOR AN ORGANIZATION
RUN BY KIDS
THAT INVESTIGATES ANYTHING
STRANGE, WEIRD, AND ESPECIALLY ODD.
OUR JOB IS TO PUT THINGS
RIGHT AGAIN.

[Whirring, Clicking]

Agents arrive in tubes. They shoot along the tubes and crash through the side.

[Screaming]

[Roar]

A tube operator says, SWITCHINATING!

Ms. O stands at the front of a boat moving through colourful balls.

Olive asks, WHO DO WE WORK FOR?

The front of a file folder reads “Undercover Olive.”

Olive and Otto stand in a library. A librarian wearing glasses has black hair tucked behind his ears.

The librarian says, THANKS FOR COMING, ODD SQUAD.

The librarian says, WELL, THE PROBLEM IS THIS.
THIS BOOK JUST APPEARED
ON THE SHELF.

THE GUY WHO WORKS HERE?
EXACTLY. AND WATCH THIS!

"DUSTIN WAS CALM,
DUSTIN WAS COOL,
"AND THEN DUSTIN FELL OFF
OF A LIBRARY STOOL."

A light flashes by Dustin. He falls off a library stool.

Dustin says, HEY! AUGH!

Olive and Otto say, WHOA.

The librarian reads, "DUSTIN WAS FILLED
WITH SHOCK AND APPALLED,
"THEN DUSTIN GOT TRAPPED
IN A VERY BIG BALL!"

Light flashes. A transparent ball appears around Dustin.

THAT BOOK!

The librarian says, I'M SO SORRY!

Olive says, I HAVE AN IDEA.

The librarian says, HUH?

Olive says, MAY I?
WITH A STROKE OF HER PEN,
AND DUSTIN LIVED
HAPPILY EVER AFTER.

Light flashes and the ball disappears.

Dustin says, I'M SO HAPPY!

Otto says, NO PROBLEM.

Olive and Otto crawl behind a bookcase and disappear.

[Buzz]

The librarian looks at the book and says, THAT DOESN'T EVEN RHYME.

[Elephant trumpets]

Olive and Otto walk into Ms. O’s office. Ms. O’s black hair is pulled into a bun at the back of her head.

Olive asks, YOU WANTED TO SEE US, MS. O?

Ms. O says, YES, SOMETHING VERY BAD
HAS HAPPENED.

Otto says, YOU MEAN ODD.

Ms. O shouts, NO, I MEAN BAD!

Ms. O uses a remote to turn on a screen. On the screen, a complex system interconnecting lines appears.

[Buzz]

Ms. O says, THIS MAP SHOWS WHERE ALL THE
SECRET ENTRANCES ARE
TO THE ODD SQUAD TUBE SYSTEM.

Olive says, LET ME GUESS, ONE OF THE
VILLAINS IN TOWN FOUND THE MAP.

Ms. O says, NO!
ALL THE VILLAINS IN TOWN
FOUND IT!

WE HAVE A RECREATION
OF WHAT HAPPENED.

Puppets in a puppet theatre fight over a map.

The puppets shout, I SAW IT FIRST!
NO, I SAW IT FIRST!
THE MAP IS MINE!

Ms. O says, AS WE ALL KNOW, VILLAINS ARE
SO TONIGHT, THEY'RE HAVING A BIG
ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS CONTEST
AND WHOEVER WINS
WINS THE MAP.

Olive says, BUT IF ANY VILLAIN GOT THAT MAP,
THEY COULD CRUMP, BOING, WHOOSH
ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD!

Otto says, OR CRUMP, BOING, WHOOSH

Ms. O says, I'M NOT FINISHED.

Ms. O claps and reveals a chalkboard with tally marks on it.

[Clap]

Ms. O says, HERE ARE TALLY MARKS
SHOWING HOW MANY VILLAINS
ARE GOING TO THE ROCK, PAPER,
SCISSORS PARTY.

Otto asks, WHAT ARE TALLY MARKS?

Olive says, TALLY MARKS ARE A FAST
AND EASY WAY TO COUNT.

Ms. O says, YOU TELL HIM, SISTER.

EACH ONE OF THESE LINES
STANDS FOR ONE,
AND THEN WHEN YOU GET TO FIVE,
YOU DRAW A LINE THROUGH
THE OTHER FOUR. LIKE THIS.

Otto says, OH.
SO THAT MEANS FIVE, TEN,
FIFTEEN, PLUS ONE EQUALS SIXTEEN VILLAINS
ARE GOING TO THE PARTY.

Ms. O says, LUCKY FOR US, THIS BAD GUY GOT
SICK AND CAN'T GO.

Olive says, SO YOU WANT ONE OF US TO DRESS
UP LIKE THAT VILLAIN,
BEAT ALL THE BAD GUYS AT ROCK,
PAPER, SCISSORS,
AND WIN THE MAP BACK?

Ms. O says, YOU KNOW, I WAS REALLY LOOKING
FORWARD TO SAYING THAT PART,
BUT NEVER MIND.
OLIVE, YOU'RE THE BEST RPS
YOU'LL PLAY.

Olive says, JUST ONE QUESTION, WHICH VILLAIN
AM I DRESSING UP AS?

[Dramatic music plays]

Ms. O hands Olive an envelope. Olive opens the envelope and her eyes grow wide.

Olive says, NO, NOT HER!
I TAKE IT BACK!
I WON'T DO IT. I CAN'T!
I JUST-- NO, I WON'T.

Ms. O smiles.

[Groan]

[Horse whinnies]

An ice cream truck is parked outside of a warehouse.
Olive sits inside the truck, dressed as a clown.

Otto says, ALL RIGHT, OLIVE, ONE MORE TIME.

Olive says, KOOKY CLOWN.

Otto asks, WHY DO YOU WANT TO DESTROY

Olive says, SO THE WORLD CAN BE MORE KOOKY.

Otto says, LET'S HEAR THE LAUGH.

Olive laughs, HO-HO-HO.

Otto says, YOU'RE KOOKY THE CLOWN,
YOU HAVE TO BE MORE KOOKY!

Olive says, OKAY.
OOO-EE-OO! OO-EE-OO!
AH-HA-HA-HA!

Otto smiles and says, OSCAR, SHE'S READY.

Oscar rolls his chair towards Olive.

Oscar says, HEY, OLIVE.
THIS FLOWER CAMERA WILL LET US
SEE WHAT YOU SEE.
OH, AND HERE'S HOW WE'LL COMMUNICATE.

Olive takes an ear piece from Oscar.

Olive says, BUT WHAT ARE YOU GONNA TALK
IT'S NOT LIKE YOU CAN READ

Oscar says, BUT THAT IS WHERE YOU'RE WRONG.

Otto smiles and pats Oscar on the shoulder.

Otto says, I KNEW YOU COULD READ MINDS.

Oscar says, I CAN'T READ MINDS.
BUT I HAVE TONS OF VIDEOS
PLAYING ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS.

OTTO AND I WILL LOOK AT
THE FOOTAGE, SEARCH FOR PATTERNS
AND MAKE A PREDICTION ABOUT WHAT
THEY'LL THROW NEXT.

Otto says, IMPRESSIVE!
BUT YOU ALREADY KNEW I THOUGHT
THAT, BECAUSE, YOU KNOW,
WE GOT A LITTLE THING HERE, RIGHT?

Oscar says, IF ANYTHING GOES WRONG,
AGENT ORSON WILL GET US OUT.
HE'S AN EXCELLENT DRIVER.

Olive peers at a baby sitting in a driver’s seat.

[Cooing]

Olive leaves the ice cream truck.

[Shoes squeaking, door slides shut]

[Energetic music plays]

A doorman says,
HEY, KOOKY, GOOD TO SEE YOU!
GOOD LUCK IN THERE.

Olive laughs, HOO-HOO-HOO!

Otto says,
OLIVE IS INSIDE.

YOU'RE DOING GREAT, OLIVE.

A man says, KOOKY.

Otto says, I'VE NEVER SEEN SO MANY VILLAINS
IN ONE PLACE.

Oscar says, UH-OH.

Todd says, SURPRISED YOU SHOWED, KOOKY.
HEARD YOU WERE FEELING FUNNY.

Oscar says, IT'S OLIVE'S OLD PARTNER,
ODD TODD.

[Sniffing]

Todd says, SOMETHING'S DIFFERENT ABOUT YOU.

Otto says, HE NOTICED OLIVE!
GET HER OUT!

Oscar says, WE CAN'T!
ORSON'S ON HIS LUNCH BREAK!

Orson eats dry cereal from a bowl on the steering wheel.

[Crunch]

Oscar says, OLIVE, YOU'VE GOTTA CONVINCE
ODD TODD THAT YOU'RE KOOKY.

Olive says, UH... WOULD YOU LIKE A TOWEL?

Olive sprays liquid at Todd.

Todd smiles and says, YEP. SAME OLD KOOKY.

Oscar says, THAT WAS A CLOSE ONE.

Otto says, TOO CLOSE.

Oscar says, OLIVE, YOU'VE GOTTA FIT IN WITH
THE OTHER VILLAINS.
MAKE THEM THINK
THAT YOU'RE ONE OF THEM.

Olive says, COPY THAT.

A woman has her hair in a tall beehive. She talks to a man in shiny green pants.

The woman says, I'M THINKING ABOUT GOING BY
"THE" PUPPET MASTER,
BUT THEN I'VE GOT STATIONARY, AND...
TO BE HONEST, I DON'T REALLY...

The man asks, DO YOU NOT LIKE IT?

The woman says, NO.

Olive says, HELLO, PUPPET MASTER.
JELLYBEAN JOE.

Joe says, GREETINGS, KOOKY CLOWN.

Puppet Master say, HELLO, KOOKY.
WHAT ARE YOU UP TO?

Olive says, WHAT HAVEN'T I BEEN UP TO?
SO MUCH BAD, EVIL VILLAIN STUFF.
LIKE YESTERDAY, I STOLE A DIAMOND.

[Gasping]

Olive says, AND I JUST THREW IT OUT.

Joe asks, WHY'D YOU THROW IT OUT?

Olive says, BECAUSE I'M KOOKY.
I'M KOOKY THE CLOWN!

Puppet Master says, THAT DOESN'T SOUND KOOKY.
THAT JUST SOUNDS LIKE
A POOR DECISION.
IT'S PROBABLY WORTH A LOT
OF MONEY.

FIND IT?

Olive says, NO NEED, IT'S ACTUALLY--
IT'S OKAY.

Puppet Master yells, HEY, EVERYONE,
KOOKY LOST A DIAMOND!

Joe asks, HAS ANYONE SEEN A DIAMOND?

Puppet Master repeats, A DIAMOND!

Olive says,
NO, ACTUALLY, I JUST REMEMBERED!
I FOUND IT IN MY POCKET!

Joe says, OH, GOOD. CLOSE ONE.

Joe and Puppet Master stare at Olive as she nods awkwardly.

[Silence]

Puppet Master points at a table and says, LOTS OF SALAD.

Todd says, ATTENTION!

Puppet Master says, OH GOOD.

Todd shouts, GATHER ROUND, VILLAINS!

[Rock music plays]

Todd says, TONIGHT, WE COMPETE FOR THE ODD SQUAD
TUBE MAP!

[Applause]

Olive says, WOW, NEAT.

[Horn honks]

Todd says, SHAPESHIFTER! THE RULES.

Shapeshifter walks to the centre of a boxing ring. She has blue bobbed hair.

She says, IT'S SIMPLE.
ROCK SMASHES SCISSORS.

Shapeshifter’s right hand turns into a rock and her left hand turns into scissors. Her rock smashes the scissors.

She says, PAPER COVERS ROCK.

One of her hands turns into paper and the other into a rock.
The paper covers the rock.

[Growling]

One of her hands turns into scissors, the other into a piece of paper.

[Snip]

She says, SCISSORS CUTS PAPER.

[Laughter, applause]

Todd shouts, EVIL REFEREE!
WHO IS PLAYING WHO?

The referee has black hair and a beard. He stands beside a chart of competitors.

The referee says, JUST A QUICK REMINDER THAT MY
FIRST NAME IS WYATT.
EVIL REFEREE IS ACTUALLY
MY LAST NAME,
WHICH I DON'T ACTUALLY USE
ON ACCOUNT OF PEOPLE
WITHOUT GETTING--

Todd and Shapeshifter shout,
WHO'S PLAYING WHO?!

ROUND ONE,
WE'VE GOT TINY DANCER VERSUS
JELLYBEAN JOE.
PUPPET MASTER VERSUS ODD TODD,

LET'S GET TO WORK.

[Braying, applause]

Wyatt says, EVIL KNIGHT IS OUT, OUT, OUT!

[Whistle blows]

Wyatt says, PUPPET MASTER VERSUS ODD TODD!

ROCK BEATS SCISSORS!

[Laughing]

Wyatt announces, ODD TODD MOVES ONTO ROUND TWO.
NEXT UP! FLADAM VERSUS KOOKY CLOWN!

[Dramatic music plays]

Fladam stretches in front of Olive.

Wyatt says, GIVING YOU A MINUTE TO STRETCH
OR TALK TO YOURSELF, WHATEVER.

Olive asks, GUYS, WHAT HAVE YOU GOT?

Oscar says, HEY, OLIVE.
WE WATCHED FLADAM PLAY THIRTY GAMES
OF ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS,
AND WE TALLIED UP THE RESULTS. OTTO?

Otto says, FLADAM THREW ROCK ONE, TWO,
THREE, FOUR TIMES.
HE THREW SCISSORS ONE, TWO,
THREE, FOUR TIMES.
BUT HE THREW PAPER FIVE, TEN, FIFTEEN,
TWENTY, TWENTY-ONE, TWENTY-TWO TIMES.

THAT ACTUALLY MAKES SENSE
AND PAPER IS FLAT.

Oscar says, HUH. DID YOU JUST COME UP WITH
THAT ONE NOW?

Otto says, YES, I DID.

Oscar says, GOOD ONE.

Otto says, YEAH, I MEAN,
I WAS JUST THINKING,
AND PAPER IS FLAT.

Olive says, GUYS!

Oscar says, SORRY. UH, FLADAM THROWS PAPER
THE MOST AMOUNT OF TIMES,
SO HE'S MOST LIKE TO THROW IT
AGAINST YOU, TOO.

Olive says, SO I SHOULD THROW SCISSORS
TO BEAT HIM?

Otto says, PRECISELY.

[Whistle blows, applause]

Wyatt says, TIME TO DO THIS.
ALL RIGHT. I WANT A NICE,
CLEAN FIGHT.

YOU EITHER THROW ROCK, PAPER,
OR SCISSORS.

[Dramatic music plays]

Wyatt says, SCISSORS CUTS PAPER!
KOOKY CLOWN MOVES TO ROUND TWO.

Olive yells, YES!

Otto says, YES!

Oscar says, WHOO-HOO, YEAH!

Fladam says, NO CLOWN BEATS ME!
I'LL FLATTEN YOU!

Joe says, WHOA, MAN.

Todd says, HEY, GUYS, GUYS, GUYS!
IT'S OKAY. IT'S OKAY.
KOOKS, MAKE HIM A BALLOON ANIMAL.
CHEER HIM UP, COME ON.

Olive says, OF COURSE.

Olive blows into a balloon.

[Squeaking balloon]

Olive gives Fladam a long, empty balloon.

Olive says, IT'S A SNAKE. IT'S SLEEPING.

[Chuckling nervously, whistle blows]

Olive runs out of the ring.

Wyatt says, THAT'S LUNCH, EVERYBODY.
HOPE YOU LIKE QUICHE.

[Dramatic music plays]

KISSING A GIRAFFE
WHILE RIDING A UNICORN
WITH ONE BALLOON.

Todd says, SOMETHING IS UP WITH HER.

Joe says, YEAH.

A villain with short dark hair says, SOMETHING DOES SEEM UP.

Joe says, DEFINITELY UP.

Fladam says, ALL THE WAY TO THE TOP. BIGTIME.

The man with short hair says, YEAH...

[Silence]

Todd asks, SHOULD WE WALK AWAY NOW?

The other three villains say, YEAH.

The Odd Squad sigil appears. A rabbit with antlers says, TO BE CONTINUED.

[Military music plays]

Oscar says, WELCOME TO HEADQUARTERS. THE LAB.

Doors slide open and Oscar walks into the lab. Agent Olaf stands beside a green table. He has short black hair.

[Whoosh]

Oscar says, GREETINGS, AGENTS.
WELCOME TO THE LAB,
WHERE I CONDUCT ALL SORTS
OF EXPERIMENTS,

Olaf says, I'M OLAF.

Oscar says, THAT'S OLAF.
I ASKED MS. O FOR SOME HELP
IN THE LAB,
AND SHE SENT ME AGENT--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, WHICH IS GREAT, BECAUSE I HAVE A
TON OF WORK TO DO
THE ONLY PROBLEM IS--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, HE WON'T STOP SAYING "I'M OLAF."
IN FACT, I STARTED
KEEPING TRACK.
THESE LINES ARE CALLED
TALLY MARKS.

Oscar holds up a small whiteboard and a marker.

Oscar says, A TALLY MARK ISN'T A NUMBER,
IT'S JUST A MARK.
IN THIS CASE, EACH LINE
REPRESENTS EVERY TIME
OLAF SAYS "I'M OLAF."

Oscar says, AS YOU CAN SEE, THERE IS ONE,
TWO, THREE OF THEM.
BECAUSE THAT'S HOW MANY TIMES
HE'S SAID IT.

THIS IS A QUICKER WAY
OF COUNTING,
ESPECIALLY WHEN THE THING THAT
YOU'RE COUNTING
KEEPS ON CHANGING--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says,...SO QUICKLY.
SEE? NOW THERE'S ONE, TWO,
THREE, FOUR MARKS.
BECAUSE OLAF SAID "I'M OLAF"
A TOTAL OF FOUR TIMES.

THIS IS A LOT QUICKER THAN
HAVING TO ERASE
AND REWRITE THE NUMBER EVERY
SINGLE TIME IT CHANGES.

WATCH, ANY SECOND NOW,
HE'LL SAY IT AGAIN. HUH.

GUESS HE'S GOTTEN IT OUT
OF HIS SYSTEM,
WHICH IS GREAT,
'CAUSE I HAVE A--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, AND THERE IT IS.
I'LL PUT ANOTHER MARK DOWN,
ONLY THIS TIME,
I'LL DO IT LIKE THIS.

NOW I KNOW THAT THIS GROUP HERE
EQUALS FIVE.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, MAKE THAT SIX. SO I'LL START A
NEW TALLY MARK OVER HERE.

FIVE, PLUS THIS ONE TALLY MARK
OVER HERE EQUALS SIX.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, LET'S MAKE THAT SEVEN.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, THAT'S EIGHT.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, NINE.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, TEN. AND THIS IS JUST TODAY.
YOU SHOULD SEE YESTERDAY.

Tally marks cover a large whiteboard.

Olaf says, I AM OLAF.

Oscar says, I'M GOING TO NEED
ANOTHER WHITEBOARD.

[Energetic music plays]

Featuring:
Olive: Dalila Bela.
Otto: Filip Geljo.
Ms. O: Millie Davis.
Oscar: Sean Michael Kyer.

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

The paper on the board next to Vanessa reads “Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

Text reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK FROM THAT GREAT

TO REVIEW, TODAY WE TALKED ABOUT
THE DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
WHICH IS THE NUMBER OF
FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES
COMPARED TO THE NUMBER OF
POSSIBLE OUTCOMES.

AND WE DISCUSSED EXPERIMENTAL
PROBABILITY.
SO WHAT RESULTS DO WE GET AFTER
WE CONDUCT AN EXPERIMENT.

SO THE NUMBER OF TIMES
AN EVENT OCCURS
OVER THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF TRIALS.

WHAT GAME DID YOU COME UP WITH?

I'VE GOT A DIFFERENT WAY
TO EXPRESS--
OR TO WIN A GAME WITH TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

IF YOU WANT TO MAKE A SPINNER
WITH FOUR DIFFERENT SECTIONS,
AND YOU WANT TO DO EIGHT SPINS,
AND YOU WIN IF YOU GET EACH
SECTION TWO TIMES.

THAT WOULD BE ANOTHER WAY
TO PLAY A GAME
WITH A PROBABILITY OF TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT,
OR ONE OVER FOUR.

SO WHATEVER YOU DECIDE,
MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE FUN
AND YOU HAVE A GREAT TIME
LEARNING MATH.

AND CONTINUE ON WITH
THE POSITIVE AFFIRMATIONS
THAT WE'VE BEEN PRACTICING OVER
THESE PAST FEW WEEKS.

THEY'LL REALLY HELP BUILD YOUR
CONFIDENCE AND BE AWESOME,
AND REALLY ENJOY ENJOY YOUR TIME
WITH MATH.
THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR SPENDING
THE PAST SIXTY MINUTES WITH ME.

I HOPE YOU LEARNED SOMETHING,
AND I HOPE YOU SHARED A LAUGH
OVER THE PAST HOUR.

MY NAME IS TEACHER VANESSA.
IT'S BEEN AWESOME
BEING WITH YOU,

AND I'LL SEE YOU AGAIN ON
ANOTHER EPISODE
OF THE TVOKIDS POWER HOUR
OF LEARNING. TAKE CARE.

The animated sun shines.

[Upbeat music plays]

Text reads “TVO Kids would like to thank all the teachers involved in the Power Hour of Learning as they continue to teach the children of Ontario from their homes.”

“TVO Power Hour of Learning.”